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Tuesday, November 30, 2021

I was talking with a client recently and the subject of annuities came up. They said that they had heard that, “you should stay away from annuities.” So, I mentioned that, like most everything in financial planning, staying...

Tuesday, November 23, 2021

It’s been a long time since we had “serious” inflation. More than 30 years. In the 1990s we averaged about 2.9% inflation, in the 2000s we had averaged about 2.5% inflation and in the 2010s the average was about 1.8%...

Tuesday, November 16, 2021

As we settle into November, thoughts turn to the end of the year. As they year winds down, there are still things you can do to reduce your 2021 tax bill. 1.) Check Your Withholding If you were hit with a big tax bill last April it...

Tuesday, November 9, 2021

I often get clients and friends asking about “good” investments or “bad” investments . . . or ESG investments. Generally, my answer is always the same. It depends on your goals. Some investments might be great...

Tuesday, November 2, 2021

In planning conversations, this question comes up a lot. Many folks have heard a lot of talk about how the Social Security system is “broken” and won’t be there for future generations. There is a lot of debate about...

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Wednesday, October 27, 2021

It’s that time of year again, when many company-provided insurance policies allow open enrollment.We’d like to piggy-back on that concept by offering you an open enrollment of another kind. If you give us a call or reply...

Tuesday, October 19, 2021

For many Americans, the question of when to retire is hard. There used to be a “standard plan” for many families. Most folks stayed at one job for a career. The company provided a pension. You understood what you needed to...

Wednesday, October 13, 2021

The FAFSA process starts each fall on October 1. If you have children in high school, you very likely are thinking about college for them. And, if you are even thinking about college for your kids, you need to complete the FAFSA (Free...

Wednesday, October 6, 2021

Target date funds are often found in retirement savings plans at your work. The description “target date” comes because these funds are described as designed for a specific time frame. Maybe for retirement, maybe for your...

Wednesday, September 29, 2021

A key concept to understand as you work to secure your financial future is the difference between saving and investing. When I work with clients, I am always a fiduciary. I’m an advocate for my clients’ best interests at...

Wednesday, September 22, 2021

If you are like many Americans thinking about retirement, one of your biggest worries may be: “Have I got enough money to retire? What if I run out?” Research shows that you are not alone. Worse Than Dying. A research...

Wednesday, September 15, 2021

We have hit more than 50 new stock market highs in 2021. It seems the markets have been rising for A Long Time. Does this mean the end is nigh? Should you panic? Regular readers know that I believe the most reliable way to grow wealth...

Wednesday, September 8, 2021

Risk tolerance is a measure of how much fluctuation in value you can stand in order to receive growth of your principal over time. Sound simple, right? Or maybe is just sounds like financial mumbo jumbo. The term risk tolerance is used...

Wednesday, September 1, 2021

If you are like many of my older clients, you have heard that “you have to avoid probate, it’s horrible and expensive.” So, what is probate? Specifically, probate is a legal term for a process in which a will is...

Wednesday, August 25, 2021

If you are like most Americans, you don’t have a great handle on your progress toward financial goals. One of the reasons may be that most folks DO NOT use outside help to create a financial plan or to manage their investments....

Wednesday, August 18, 2021

What are the 6 Key Components of Financial Planning? The traditional description of holistic financial planning looks at all these areas of your financial Life: Cash flow and net worth. Risk protection strategies. Property casualty....

Wednesday, August 11, 2021

Like so many topics in the financial world, the answer to “What is the Meaning of Financial Independence?” depends on your situation. Most of financial planning is highly personalized. Your goals, your priorities, your...

Wednesday, August 4, 2021

As your fiduciary financial planner, I am your advocate at all times. So, I'm always watching for factors that might threaten your financial goals. I recently came across this article and thought you might find it helpful. As always,...

Wednesday, July 28, 2021

When you decide you need a financial planner, it’s hard to sort through them all to find the one that makes the most sense for you. I’ve put together a list of things to look for—and things to avoid—when...

Wednesday, July 21, 2021

The financial service industry is full of fancy titles and complicated terms. It’s easy to get confused. The good news is that the definition of a fee-only financial advisor is pretty straightforward. Fee-only advisors are...

Wednesday, July 14, 2021

The financial service industry is famous for a lot of labels and certifications. So it can be confusing. What’s the difference between a financial advisor and a financial planner? Financial Advisor is generally anybody who works...

Wednesday, July 7, 2021

One of my favorite quotes is: “If you ask great questions, you’ll get great answers.” To get the best experience from a financial planner, you really need to know what questions to ask. Whether it’s your...

Wednesday, June 30, 2021

One essential part of all my financial plans for EVERY client is estate planning recommendations. There are two primary reasons for this: FIRST – In order to assure that your financial priorities for your family are achieved, you...

Wednesday, June 23, 2021

People often ask why I recommend that their first financial planning priority should be an emergency fund. The answer is that “life happens.” There is always an unexpected expense that pops up. Maybe it’s a fender...

Wednesday, June 16, 2021

I recommend that all my financial planning clients have updated estate planning documents as part of their holistic financial plan. Often, those documents include some amount of elder law planning. The estate planning attorneys with...

Wednesday, June 2, 2021

You own property and casualty insurance for the same reason you own any insurance, as a way to manage risk. Insurance is a contract that allows you to transfer risk to the insurance company for an annual fee. The fee makes sense when...

Wednesday, May 26, 2021

Regular readers of this space know that financial planning is not a black-and-white process. Advice on how to build wealth really depends on what you consider wealth. Maybe that means having enough savings so that one day you can stop...

Thursday, May 20, 2021

If you are like some of my clients and friends, you have seen some cool marketing messages about great “guaranteed income” retirement annuity products. And, maybe, you also have seen a few marketing messages that talk about...

Thursday, May 13, 2021

Some clients and friends have been asking about the difference between whole life insurance and a Roth IRA. Usually, the question comes to me after a visit with a “financial planner” who works for a life insurance...

Thursday, May 6, 2021

Regular readers of this space know I LOVE Roth IRAs and their stepsister Roth 401(k)s. They are an outstanding wealth building tool that I believe most people do NOT use enough. Lately, I have been getting lots of questions from...

Thursday, April 22, 2021

Regular readers know that that I LOVE Roth IRAs and Roth 401(k)s. The opportunity to save money for retirement into a bucket where it grows without tax and can be removed without tax is FABULOUS. So, you and your spouse each max out a...

Monday, April 19, 2021

If you’ve ever wondered about whether to trust your financial advisor, you are not alone. Only one in three people are confident their financial advisor always puts their interests ahead of the advisor’s, and about half of...

Thursday, March 18, 2021

On Thursday, March 11, 2021, the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 (ARPA 2021) was signed into law. This is a $1.9 trillion emergency relief package that includes payments to individuals and funding for federal programs, vaccines and...

Monday, February 15, 2021

As people move from working to retirement, they face a number of challenges in adjusting to their new life. But most don’t expect spending money to be one of them. Many families have been saving for retirement for decades. And...

Thursday, January 14, 2021

If you are like many of the people I know, you are VERY glad to see 2020 end and to turn the page to a new year. It is my wish for all my friends and clients that 2021 be a year where the best day of 2020 is the worst day of 2021. I...

Thursday, December 31, 2020

As the year draws to a close. I want to take a moment to offer some perspective as we move forward. The COVID-19 pandemic continues and the impact on our economy and our communities is still unfolding. I expect that 2021 will hold a...

Wednesday, November 4, 2020

I am writing this before the polls close on Tuesday. So, who knows how things turned out? We had record voter turn out and a high degree of engagement from both Republicans and Democrats. And, most folks are at least a little concerned...

Tuesday, November 3, 2020

Roth IRAs have been with us for more than 20 years. That’s about as long as we’ve had Google, and the same amount of time since the last presidential impeachment hearings. Some things have changed a lot in that time, and...

Thursday, October 1, 2020

The FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) for the 2021-2022 year opens on October 1, 2020. The FAFSA is a prerequisite for federal student loans, grants, and work-study. In addition, colleges typically require the FAFSA...

Thursday, September 10, 2020

Well, of course, this is one of those questions that depends. Most everything in financial planning depends on your particular situation and your overall goals. One thing is for sure, over the next few weeks leading up to November, we...

Thursday, September 3, 2020

Any plan you make is outdated as soon as you finish it. Planning is a PROCESS not and EVENT. To be truly effective, any good plan monitors progress and adjusts to changing conditions. It’s very easy for families who commit to a...

Thursday, August 27, 2020

Once upon a time, a deposit to a traditional 401(k) gave you a powerful wealth building tool. Today, things are a little different. First, let’s review all the good reasons to participate in the 401(k) when it’s offered at...

Friday, July 31, 2020

In these crazy times, we have lots to think about. With the Great Pandemic raging and unemployment soaring, some of us find ourselves thinking about mortality and about the fragility of good health.

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Have I Missed the Pandemic Rally? This has been a crazy year. Markets fell about 34 percent in 33 days bottoming out on March 23, 2020, then rebounded to post the best 50 days in history. And as of July 1, the markets celebrated the...

Thursday, July 16, 2020

As July kicks off, we mark the half-way point of the year, and I’m reminded of the Grateful Dead song that says, “What a long, strange trip it’s been . . . .” – Robert Hunter in the Grateful Dead song...

Thursday, July 2, 2020

These days there is no shortage of news and commentary about the Covid-19 pandemic and what it means. If you are like me, it can get to be a bit much sometimes. But, with unemployment around 14.7 percent and business profits disrupted...

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Most of you know that the S&P 500 Index fell from an all-time high on Feb. 19 into bear market territory (a close down 20 percent from the high) in a record 16 days. And in less than five weeks, it closed down 34 percent from the peak...

Monday, June 22, 2020

When the market falls 6 percent in one day, it most likely feels like you need more cash on hand than usual. Conversely, when the market is climbing 45 percent in roughly 60 days you may decide you want to dump everything in the...

Saturday, June 20, 2020

One of my favorite quotes is: “If you ask great questions, you’ll get great answers.” To get the best experience from a financial planner, you really need to know what questions to ask. Whether it’s your...

Tuesday, June 2, 2020

As a professional retirement planner, I go through the process of retiring approximately 12 times a year with my clients. I see firsthand the process and hazards that families deal with as they shift from working for a living to...

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Regular readers of this space know that one of my favorite answers to financial planning questions is, “It depends.” And, of course, the answer to “How much cash is enough?” is “It depends.” Cash...

Saturday, May 9, 2020

As I write this, the U.S. stock market is continuing the crazy swings we’ve been enduring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the market has continued sideways in May, we have just ended a historic market period. We had one...

Thursday, April 30, 2020

On April 29, the Bureau of Economic Analysis released an advance estimate of U.S. economic growth in the first quarter of 2020. The estimate showed a decline of 4.8 percent for the quarter. Remember that this analysis is based on...

Saturday, April 25, 2020

As a financial advisor, I don’t think it’s ever too early to start planning for retirement. Ideally retirement planning starts as soon as an individual starts earning money, even on their very first job. However, specific...

Friday, April 24, 2020

It continues to be crazy time in America. In Minnesota, we have a “stay at home” order in place. No school for the kids. No face-to-face meetings. No in-person church. Things are challenging. We still don’t know...

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Warren Buffett is one of the most famous investors in America. The first week of May, Buffett’s holding company Berkshire Hathaway holds its annual shareholder’s meeting. Buffet writes an annual letter to shareholders...

Friday, April 3, 2020

I’m sure that you are dealing with ongoing uncertainty due to the global impact of the COVID-19 Coronavirus. Whether you’re concerned about your health, your employment, your loved ones, your retirement, or all of the...

Friday, March 6, 2020

I’m hearing more about telephone scams where the scammer is pretending to be a government employee. Scammers will try to scare and trick people into giving them their personal information and money. The scammers may threaten...

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Regular readers of this space know that the economic experts I trust are confident that we are on the cusp of a recession. The coming recession is a real challenge to your financial goals over the next 12 months. A recession is...

Thursday, January 23, 2020

We are about three weeks into 2020. If you are like most Americans, you may have already given up on your New Year’s resolutions. About 40 percent of Americans set a resolution and about 60 percent of them fail within six months...

Friday, January 17, 2020

We’ve been hearing conflicting reports about whether a recession is looming. A recent survey of 500 Americans shows many are worried about a recession and plan to adjust. If you’re in that category—or even if...

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019 was passed by Congress and signed into law at the end of 2019. The SECURE Act, as it’s known, represents the most sweeping set of changes to retirement...

Thursday, January 2, 2020

“If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion.” –The Dalai Lama As the year winds down, I find myself thinking of the year ahead and how to make it better. Regular...

Friday, December 20, 2019

In preparation for the new year, let’s think about getting our financial house in order. A great place to start is to organize your accounts. Here are the six financial accounts you need: 1) Master checkbook. This is where your...

Thursday, December 12, 2019

A few families I’ve met with lately have seemed uncomfortable and even embarrassed as we talked about their situation. I see this a lot. Many people think that they are supposed to have a certain amount saved or have achieved...

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Is it possible to have too much stock in your mix of retirement investments? A recent Fidelity Investments analysis suggests maybe so. Fidelity is one of the largest retirement plan custodians and its analysis looked at more than 30...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Regular readers know that I expect the economy to slip into recession within the next 12 months. This is based on the expert analysis of veteran economists whom I trust. However, I’ve been thinking this for the last two years,...

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Humans make mistakes. And the Required IRA Distribution rules can be tricky, especially if you’re new to retirement distributions. So if you are better than 70 ½ years old and you own an IRA, you may want to review this...

Thursday, November 14, 2019

When you decide you need a financial planner, it’s hard to sort through them all to find the one that makes the most sense for you. I’ve put together a list of things to look for—and things to avoid—when...

Thursday, November 7, 2019

In recent years, the financial planning profession has changed a lot. Technically the profession is 50 years old, so you would expect some changes. But specifically, I’m thinking of all the changes I have seen since I started in...

Saturday, November 2, 2019

It's the American Dream to own your own home. But, it's not always the best financial choice.I’ve received several calls lately from the children of clients who were looking to buy a house. They wanted to talk about taking money...

Thursday, October 31, 2019

There are lots of ways to think about retirement, from excitement to dread to worry, to all of the above at various times. With my clients, I find it helpful to provide some wisdom that can guide their thinking as they approach this...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

As we think about retirement, one common goal is to make sure the money lasts as long as we do. With that in mind, here are five tips to help make sure your money lasts. Calculate your net worth. If you look at everything you own and...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

As we think about retirement, one common goal is to make sure the money lasts as long as we do. With that in mind, here are five tips to help make sure your money lasts. Calculate your net worth. If you look at everything you own and...

Thursday, October 10, 2019

If you are thinking about leaving your long-time employer and wondering about whether to move your retirement savings away from their retirement plan, there are a few things to consider. Saving into a company-sponsored retirement plan...

Friday, October 4, 2019

If you participate in the retirement savings plan at work such as a 401(k), 403(b) or Simple IRA, you own an IRA, or you own life insurance, you have been asked to fill out a beneficiary form. But why? If you are married, you might...

Thursday, October 3, 2019

When the Social Security program was initiated in 1935, the full benefits began at age 65. At that time, the average man could expect to live 12.7 years more (age 77.7) and the average woman could expect to live 14.7 (age 79.7) years...

Sunday, September 29, 2019

I was asked about the coming recession at the soccer field this weekend. For people in the real world like my clients and the parents of my son’s soccer team, the economy is not an important topic unless they lose their job or...

Thursday, September 26, 2019

A big scary question for many folks is, will they have enough money in retirement? You might think that if everybody is worried about it, then somebody might come up with a solution. Well, they have . . . sort of. Maybe you have...

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Have a Target Date Fund retirement account? You still need to plan. If you participate in a company-sponsored retirement saving plan, you very likely own a Target Date Fund (TDF). Based on the date you plan to retire, a TDF will own a...

Thursday, September 12, 2019

If you are getting Social Security benefits, you are signed up for Medicare. If you are not taking Social Security, you should sign up for Medicare about 90 days before your 65th birthday. Do not skip it. There are late-enrollment...

Thursday, September 5, 2019

For some, Social Security benefits are only a small part of their retirement income plan. But even so, we all pay into the Social Security system and the benefits will continue as long we live, so it’s a valuable benefit we...

Thursday, August 22, 2019

It was 40 years ago last week that BusinessWeek magazine proclaimed the end of stock investments. Stock markets have gone up and gone down since then. But mostly up. S&P 500 closed at 42 on Aug. 13, 1979 2,926.32 on Aug. 13, 2019...

Friday, August 16, 2019

For most families, saving for retirement is their largest financial goal. It’s become part of the American dream to quit working and just have fun someday. However, as we wind down the second decade of the 21st century,...

Thursday, August 8, 2019

The current market volatility is distressing. Any time we see the markets fall by more than 3 percent in a single day, it can be pretty unpleasant. But the news isn’t uniformly bad. A few things to note: Volatility is always...

Thursday, August 1, 2019

Data shows that a majority of Americans are losing thousands of dollars each year because they chose to start taking Social Security at the wrong time. One national study shows that retirees as a group will lose $3.4 trillion in...

Friday, July 26, 2019

Part of my job is to help families think about—and prepare for—bad things. It can be tricky because humans mostly don’t like to think about bad things. After all, they’re bad and it’s unpleasant to think...

Friday, July 19, 2019

For many families, the entire point of saving for retirement is to create an “income engine” that produces income to pay for life in retirement after the wages stop. But creating that engine can be tricky because of how...

Friday, July 12, 2019

It’s easy to look at people around you who seem to have accumulated more wealth than you and believe they know some big secret that you don’t. Actually, when you break down what people do to build and maintain wealth, it...

Friday, July 5, 2019

This week brings us U.S. Independence Day. It’s a reminder of several conversations I’ve had with clients and friends lately. In each case it was mostly the same conversation with different details: What will retirement...

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Since the S&P 500 index of the 500 largest U.S. stocks set a record high on June 20, many people are wondering how much longer the bull market can last. Markets started their climb in March 2009, and we have not had a bear market...

Thursday, June 13, 2019

My daughter graduated from high school on June 2. This fall will be the start of a special year in our family’s financial life: I will have two college students at the same time. These are the days. With graduation at the top of...

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Last week, I buried my father. He died at home, in his sleep, at age 85. For most of us, we’d call that a pretty good deal. But it’s hard to say good-bye to your father. Above is a picture of him holding me as a newborn....

Friday, May 31, 2019

If you are better than 50 years old and your parents are still alive, you have probably wondered from time to time if they might get caught in a scam. It’s a reasonable concern. Seniors are commonly the victims of financial...

Friday, May 24, 2019

Over time, we all face choices about where and how we live as we age. Below are 10 options for retirement living options. Aging in place The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) says that 87 percent of retiree homeowners...

Thursday, May 16, 2019

As a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™ professional, I will tell you that deciding whether to take Social Security benefits early is a big decision. It’s important to get professional advice to be sure you make the correct call...

Thursday, May 9, 2019

I refer to most financial broadcasting as “financial pornography” because the majority of this information is based on fantasy that’s all very exciting and engaging. There are flashing visuals about stock price...

Thursday, May 2, 2019

If you’re thinking about looking for a financial planner, you may be wondering what exactly a financial planner does and what value he or she can bring into your life. The answer I give when people ask me what a financial...

Thursday, April 11, 2019

If you are talking with an investment representative, a stockbroker or a financial advisor, you most likely will talk about “risk tolerance.” Risk tolerance is a term used in the investment business to talk about the...

Thursday, April 4, 2019

I bet you have seen some cool marketing about great “guaranteed income” retirement products. Conversely, I will also suppose that you have seen a few marketing messages that talk about annuities being the spawn of the...

Thursday, March 28, 2019

If you are asking this question, you are not alone. A new survey from PWC, a global tax and business services firm, shows that baby boomers want to retire soon, but many have doubts about how to make that happen. Almost 60 percent of...

Friday, March 22, 2019

Many people nearing retirement age wonder whether they would benefit from securing the services of a professional financial planner. The answer is, most likely, yes. A good planner, who is your advocate (a fiduciary advisor) in all...

Sunday, March 17, 2019

The new federal tax law takes effect for tax year 2018. One of the biggest changes is a near doubling of the standard deduction to $12,000 on single returns, $18,000 for head-of-household filers and $24,000 on joint returns....

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Risk is a topic that gets a lot of attention in the financial planning business. But it’s a term that’s not really well understood. There are many technical definitions of financial planning risk. And there is the...

Friday, March 1, 2019

One way to be sure you don’t run out of money in retirement is to carefully plan in advance. I like to talk about the Retirement Red Zone, the five years before you retire and the 10 years after. This window is when a lot of...

Friday, February 22, 2019

If you are a regular reader, you can predict that my answer to the question of when you can retire is, “It depends.” That’s because it does depend what exactly you want out of your retirement and what exactly you...

Thursday, February 14, 2019

For most Americans, their 401k savings program at work is their single largest retirement asset. According to a recent report from Transamerica, “Thirty-nine percent [of baby boomers] expect their primary source of retirement...

Thursday, February 7, 2019

From time to time, I hear people say something like, “Thinking about financial goals gives me a bellyache. Why would I pay somebody to talk about them?” If that’s how you feel, you’re not alone. Most Americans...

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Lately, I’ve been hearing some confusion on the part of folks I’ve been talking to about their financial goals. For example, a person said to me, “I’m not sure I want to save money into my IRA this year because...

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Sometimes a client tells me that they have a portion of their savings “invested” in savings bonds. Usually I get a bellyache when I hear this. Here’s why: Savings bonds are savings vehicles, like money market...

Thursday, January 17, 2019

You probably hear from different sources that you should consider funding an IRA, but you may be wondering, why bother? Here are four good reasons: You can still contribute for tax year 2018 up to $5,500 or $6,500 if you’re...

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Best new year greetings to all my friends and clients who take the time to read this. Thank you for your part in making 2018 one of the best in my professional career. I am blessed to work with wonderful clients, wonderful business...

Friday, January 4, 2019

Markets rise and fall over time. With the current bull market stretching back to March of 2009, it can be easy to forget the part about falling. But history shows that the S&P 500 index averages a 13.8 percent decline at some point...

Thursday, December 27, 2018

Now that you are a “certain age” you may find yourself thinking about retirement, or as I like to call it, the day you quit working for money and start working for fun. These days, retirement is trickier than it used to be...

Thursday, December 20, 2018

I’m reminded today of the movie It’s a Wonderful Life. I think we have all seen the movie. It’s a story about George Bailey, who resides in the fictional town of Bedford Falls and runs the family business, the...

Thursday, December 13, 2018

Your first meeting with your new financial planner is an important event. This is the person you’re trusting to advise you on matters that will materially affect your life and the lives of your family members for years to come. A...

Thursday, December 6, 2018

At year end, it’s time to think about topping off your IRA and most people should be thinking about their Roth IRA. Choosing between a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA can have major tax and estate planning implications. A...

Friday, November 30, 2018

Year end marks several important deadlines that you don’t want to forget. If you fail to meet these deadlines, you will lose out on the benefits for this year. Here are eight important tasks to take care of before Dec. 31, 2018:...

Thursday, November 15, 2018

If you ask me, my services to my clients are priceless, but I know that’s not a very satisfying response. The true answer for your family of how much return on investment you get from a financial advisor will, of course, depend...

Friday, November 9, 2018

With the recent volatility in stock prices, many people are wondering about their financial future. Stock prices are down from the highs. Since prices have moved around dramatically from day to day and even within the day, it’s...

Thursday, November 1, 2018

I have three kids. We are in the midst of college planning for my middle child, Peggy. October 1 was the first time you could complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). It’s one of the important steps in...

Thursday, October 25, 2018

While you may be thinking about the kind of tricks mischievous kids play on houses that don’t give out Halloween candy, now is also a good time to consider how your taxes for 2018 will shape up. With two months left in the...

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Retirement accounts are often the largest asset a person owns, so it’s no surprise that they routinely get split as part of a divorce settlement. But under law, a retirement account is the property of the “worker” and...

Thursday, October 11, 2018

As always, whether or not you can retire early depends on your situation. How do you want to live in retirement? How much do you have saved today? How long do you plan to live? When I was a young person just starting out in my career,...

Thursday, September 27, 2018

In Minnesota we are accustomed to paying lots of state income tax. We have the 20th highest state tax. Typical state and local taxes in Minnesota amount to 11.57 percent of adjusted gross income — about 7.56 percent more than the...

Thursday, September 20, 2018

Most people have a lot pre-conceived notions about retirement—some of them true, some of them false. I put together a list of 10 of the most common ones I hear on a daily basis so you can test your knowledge about how to put...

Sunday, September 16, 2018

Most retired folks know that IRS rules require owners of retirement accounts to take distribution when they reach a certain age. It’s called the Required Minimum Distribution or RMD. But sometimes people get some of the details...

Thursday, September 13, 2018

If you’re thinking about retirement, you should check your Social Security benefits. One ingredient in every financial plan I do for clients is to run a Social Security maximization analysis to evaluate options. Making the...

Thursday, August 30, 2018

Traditionally pension plans paid out at age 65. You can thank the “Iron Chancellor,” Otto von Bismarck of Germany for that. When he introduced a social security system to appeal to the German working class and combat the...

Thursday, August 23, 2018

Financial planning is about thinking ahead, prudently planning for the future. With that in mind, it’s only natural that from time to time you might ask the question: “What happens when my financial planner retires?”...

Thursday, August 16, 2018

When you visit a Ford dealership and look at cars, do you ever expect the new car advisor to suggest that a Toyota might better meet your needs? No. Everybody knows that the “advisors” at a car dealership work for the...

Thursday, August 2, 2018

Many people wonder if they are at risk to outlive their money. Nobody likes the idea of running out of money in old age. Based on 91 years of market history and some reasonable assumptions, if you have been doing a good job of saving...

Thursday, July 26, 2018

On July 5 the Trump administration placed tariffs on $34 billion of Chinese imports . Then on July 10 it placed an additional $200 billion of tariffs on Chinese goods, from clothes to refrigerators. How large tariffs could affect the...

Thursday, July 19, 2018

If you are 56 today, you will likely live to age 86, according to the Social Security Administration life expectancy calculator. That is an average, so half my readers will live longer than age 86. How can you be sure that you have...

Thursday, July 12, 2018

Twelve things you can’t control about the next market decline, and 13 things you can control. As we near the half-way mark of the year, the MSCI world stock index is up about 1 percent for the year. So far, not a great year for...

Thursday, July 12, 2018

So your youngest kid just graduated from college. You just realized you have 30 years of work history. You found a notebook from your first year at work and you notice a goal you wrote down: “Retire by age 50.” This year...

Thursday, June 28, 2018

In the Revenue Act of 1978, the 401(k) retirement savings plan was born. This law gave employees the choice to receive a portion of their earnings as deferred compensation held in a special account. The employees did not pay tax on...

Thursday, June 21, 2018

“How am I doing on my investment or retirement goals?” is a question I get pretty often, most often from acquaintances, not clients. The questioner is usually looking for a comparison to other people her age to gauge...

Thursday, June 14, 2018

"A goal without a plan is just a wish.” ― Antoine de Saint-Exupéry With Father’s Day coming soon, I reflect as a father, and a son, on the opportunity I have to help my children have a better life. So I thought I...

Thursday, June 7, 2018

The stock markets have been rising since March 2009. The average market expansion lasts about five years, so many experts believe we are due for a pull back. It’s all part of the normal market cycle. The current market phase is...

Thursday, May 31, 2018

Do you and your spouse disagree on investment strategy? If you are like a lot of married couples, the answer is probably “Yes.” And, there’s a reason. As with many things, men and women come at investing differently...

Thursday, May 24, 2018

Many people wonder why they would ever roll out of their 401(k) into an IRA. Whether it’s a good idea or not depends on the details of your situation. If you work with an advisor who has extensive training in all aspects of...

Thursday, May 17, 2018

I often get the question from friends and clients: “What should we do about the coming market crash?” The long-term clients I’m blessed to work with already know my answer: “Nobody can predict a ‘coming...

Thursday, May 10, 2018

After a long period of study and successful completion of six different examinations, I am proud to say that I am now a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™ professional.So as you, your family or friends begin to wonder about the...

Thursday, May 3, 2018

Growing up on the farm, we would get a surprising number of unwelcome visits from insurance salesmen. One of the least complimentary things you could say about somebody was that they reminded you of a life insurance salesman.Of course,...

Thursday, April 26, 2018

The answer to this question is the same as to many financial planning questions: “It depends.” It depends on how much you’ve saved so far and how much you will need to spend during retirement. But if you are like most...

Thursday, April 12, 2018

Many of us never got any formal financial training, so there’s a lot we think we know that we don’t actually know. As Mark Twain once put it, “It’s not what you know for sure that gets you in trouble. It’s...

Thursday, April 5, 2018

After one of the most exciting tournaments in recent memory, March Madness has sadly come to an end. If you’re like a lot of parents, watching the men’s college basketball tournament can give you dreams of watching your kid...

Thursday, March 29, 2018

You may have heard of the CFP® certification. The letters stand for Certified Financial Planner™ professional. It’s probably the most widely recognized professional designation in the personal financial planning...

Thursday, March 22, 2018

I was talking with a client recently and she mentioned a dear friend who had recently lost her husband. While the friend was working to settle the estate, to her surprise she found that she was not listed on some accounts and that she...

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Almost 12.5 million Americans change jobs every year, according to Retirement Clearinghouse via Forbes, and have to figure out what to do with a company-sponsored retirement account. If you are like a lot of people, most of your job...

Thursday, March 8, 2018

Working independently, on your own schedule, for Uber or another “gig” job can be a great source of supplemental income. But one key difference between this work and a traditional job is the retirement savings options....

Thursday, March 1, 2018

It’s a simple question with a not so simple answer. Today, as most workers approach the Retirement Red Zone (the 5 years leading up to retirement and the 5 years after), they are faced with challenges. No longer can they count on...

Thursday, February 22, 2018

Sometimes I get asked by friends and clients, “What should I do about the market decline?”I often tell them that, unfortunately, by the time the markets have declined, it’s too late to do much. Imagine you just bought...

Thursday, February 8, 2018

It’s a good question. But the answer is like a lot of financial planning advice: unsatisfying.That’s because the only truthful answer is: it depends.So how do you know if you need a financial advisor? Here are some...

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Now that we have an updated tax code, what should you expect from the markets and the economy overall in the coming year? It’s always been true that changes to the tax code create unexpected benefits and consequences. This time...

Thursday, January 25, 2018

The Roth IRA is turning 20 this year. For some of us, it’s still a new idea while for others, it’s been a fixture of their entire investing life. Whatever your perspective, it’s a great tool and it’s been used a...

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Imagine a client who is very conservative--a risk-averse investor. It’s 1999, and she has watched from the sidelines as tech stocks have skyrocketed. Year after year, she’s seen tech equities beat cash and bonds like...

Thursday, January 11, 2018

2017 was certainly an interesting year in the world of finance. The gains in the stock market surprised nearly everyone. But will the good news continue in the year ahead? How will things change?We don’t know what the future...

Friday, January 5, 2018

Classic rock fans may remember the Grateful Dead song that goes, “. . . when life looks like easy street, there is danger at your door.” Those lyrics sound like they were written for 2018. It seems everybody is asking when...

Friday, December 29, 2017

Congress just passed a controversial tax bill. There has been much discussion about what it “could” mean, but now it’s passed, let’s look at what we know. New tax brackets The number of brackets remains the same...

Thursday, December 21, 2017

We all know somebody who thinks they’re the smartest person in the room. They know the best vacation spots, the hottest bands—and the best wealth building ideas. But just because they know the difference between echidnas...

Thursday, December 14, 2017

I remember the time my sales training coach said, "We are not trying to make friends. I got all the friends I need. What I need is more clients." He was urging us to be more direct in asking a prospect to buy our products. Like a lot...

Thursday, December 7, 2017

I’m a baby boomer. I was born in 1962 during the trailing years of the baby boom and I was raised by parents who can remember the Great Depression (the one from the 1930s, not the one from 2008). My parents are savers. They saved...

Friday, December 1, 2017

Most folks don’t have a financial goal at all. Many feel their true financial goals are unrealistic, or they don’t see a path to achieve them. But putting goals into words can be the first step toward a sound financial...

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Imagine if on Monday the Dow Jones Industrial Average was down by 5,326 points. Or if the S&P 500 Index was down by 585 points. That's about 22 percent in a single day. Stock market crashThat's exactly what happened on Black Monday,...

Monday, November 13, 2017

Many clients have been asking about the new tax overhaul. They are concerned it might have a negative impact on them and are wondering what action to take right now to protect themselves. There’s no need to panic about the tax...

Thursday, November 9, 2017

On November 10, 2017, we will observe Veteran's Day. In honor of this national holiday, I want to take a moment to thank America's military veterans.There are roughly 21.8 million veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces as of 2014,...

Thursday, October 26, 2017

Have you ever opened up your investment account statement to find yourself disappointed in the numbers you’re seeing? Many investors are surprised, and often dismayed, by the performance of their investments. The problem might...

Thursday, October 19, 2017

One of the great things about the Social Security retirement benefit is that is pays you each month for as long as you live and it has a Cost of Living Adjustment each year to keep pace with living expenses. Recently announced changes...

Thursday, October 12, 2017

You’ve probably seen the headlines about 143 million credit records being leaked at Equifax, a consumer credit reporting agency. Before that, more than a billion accounts were exposed at Yahoo, and 110 million records compromised...

Thursday, October 5, 2017

Some investors are concerned about the volatility of the stock market, yet all retired investors do better with investments that grow faster than the rate of inflation. Stocks have historically been the best asset class to keep ahead...

Thursday, September 28, 2017

You don't get a haircut just once. Things change and evolve, adjustments need to be made on a regular basis. It’s the same way with your financial game plan. Financial planning is a process, not an event.Let me tell you about...

Friday, September 22, 2017

My client asked me recently about "credit insurance" to protect against the recent Equifax data breach. My answer was no. But a credit FREEZE is a good idea.You have probably seen the headlines about 143 million credit records leaked...

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Once upon a time there were jobs that could sustain you for your entire working life. Many of those jobs had valuable pension plans. If you worked there for 30 years, you could quit, take the pension and pay all your bills without...

Thursday, September 7, 2017

It’s usually a pipedream people entertain to explain why they aren’t working on their financial plan today: “As soon as I win the lottery…” “When I get my inheritance…” “If only I...

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

If you have ever changed jobs, there is a chance you left your retirement account behind. If you are changing jobs right now, you have some options about the company retirement account. You might want to get some good advice.Are you...

Sunday, July 2, 2017

You are eligible to receive reduced Social Security income benefits as early as age 62. What does it take to quit work and live off your investments at age 62? Most Americans start receiving Social Security checks at age 62, according...

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

There is no time like today to start planning for retirement. Times flies when you are having fun, so start your retirement planning now, because "someday" is closer than you think.When it comes to retirement, it may seem like...

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Many parents wonder whether they should use retirement funds to pay for college for their children. If your child is looking at attending college in the near future and you’re looking for ways to help your child with their...

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Nobody likes to think about it, but there will come a day when each of us needs some help as we get older. Having a plan to get that help and a plan to pay for it makes everything easier when that day comes. Nearly all assisted living...

Tuesday, May 9, 2017

Many people work for a firm with an employer sponsored retirement plan. Often those plans offer matching money to increase your savings. Don't miss out.Planning for retirement can be a very intimidating thing, and oftentimes it may...

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Even in the busiest time of the year, you can still take a moment to cut your tax bill.As the year winds down, many folks are thinking about the family and holiday celebrations and might not be thinking of tax day on April 15. Here are...

Saturday, April 22, 2017

If you’re worried about living longer than your partner, you might wonder whether women really do live longer than men. Although it’s not the same for every couple, on average, women outlive men by five years, which means...

Friday, April 21, 2017

Are you properly planning for your retirement? The reality is that most people in America aren’t doing enough to prepare for life after retirement. The average 50 year old person has just over $40,000 saved for retirement. This...

Saturday, April 15, 2017

Everyone hopes that at some point in their career, they’ll have enough financial stability to retire. Unfortunately, individuals are having to work longer than ever before because daily life is so expensive. There always seems to...

Friday, April 14, 2017

No one wants to think about needing extended healthcare after retirement, but it’s an important factor in planning for retirement. Without setting aside funds for extended healthcare now, you may find that, when you’re in...

Friday, March 31, 2017

If an investment is successful, many people assume that they should stick with it and watch it grow. However, that is not always the best strategy if you’re looking to have a well-rounded, successful portfolio that fits the...

Friday, March 24, 2017

Seeking advice when it comes to finances is a good idea, as long as you are seeking advice from the right individuals. Obviously, asking a gambler what you should do with your money is not the brightest of ideas. Instead, asking...

Friday, March 17, 2017

When it comes to planning for retirement there are a variety of ways that you can go about saving. If your employer offers a retirement plan and match, you should definitely take advantage of this opportunity. While becoming less...

Thursday, March 16, 2017

A recent study shows that more than 90 percent of investors do NOT know how much their 401(k) costs. You can often reduce the cost of your retirement investments.According to a NerdWallet study, roughly 92 perent of Americans have no...

Friday, March 10, 2017

The Dow reached the 20,000 mark recently. What does it mean? What should you do?It's been hard to miss the news that the Dow Jones Industrial Average of 30 U.S. companies recently hit the 20,000 mark. It's been almost 8 years since the...

Thursday, March 9, 2017

At Dunncreek Advisors, we feel as though we get this question a lot. If you are wondering when the best, or right, time to start saving for retirement, the answer is yesterday. We say this not to worry you, but to stress the importance...

Friday, March 3, 2017

For many couples, the idea of living longer than a spouse can be challenging to think about, but it is often the case that one partner will live longer than another, at least for some small amount of time. For women, it may be...

Thursday, March 2, 2017

While many people in St. Paul, MN, don’t necessarily enjoy getting old, the thought of retirement is sure to put a smile on the face of a lot of individuals. Some people in this country may choose to never retire, but for many of...

Friday, February 24, 2017

A recent study shows that more than 90 percent of investors do NOT know how much their 401(k) costs. You can often reduce the cost of your retirement investments.According to a NerdWallet study, roughly 92 percent of Americans have no...

Thursday, February 23, 2017

When you’re thinking about your life in 10 year, 20 years, and maybe even in 30 years, you probably like to avoid thinking about your healthcare needs. For many of us, we want to focus on the life we’re living now, and we...

Friday, February 17, 2017

Part of an effective legacy plan usually includes at least one off-farm job. The supplemental income and benefits are often key to a successful transition from one generation to the next. Good News! The USDA says that there are more...

Thursday, February 16, 2017

With the election of Donald Trump as U.S. President there has been a lot of talk about his family and their role in the family business. For many farm business owners this is common. Is it always good for the business? We have seen a...

Friday, February 10, 2017

One of the most common frustrations we hear at Dunncreek Advisors has to do with sticking to a budget. While budgeting isn’t always fun, it’s a critically important way to live within your means, and to prepare yourself...

Thursday, February 9, 2017

At DunnCreek Advisors, we’re invested in helping you have a successful retirement; that’s why we provide retirement advising services in St. Paul, MN. Our retirement financial advisors can help you formulate a retirement...

Friday, February 3, 2017

We are all getting older. Maybe you noticed. One rite of passage is the arrival of your AARP application on your 50th birthday. It's a great wake up call to get your retirement in order.It came in the mail. Just another envelope to...

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Annuities are a very popular retirement tool. Since they are contracts with an insurance company, they can sometimes be complicated. Here are 8 Tips to Find the Right Annuity.When you reach a certain age, you are likely to get...

Saturday, January 21, 2017

Estate planning is one part of a farm families finances that often gets overlooked. In fact, research has shown that approximately 60% of American farmers do not have an estate plan in place. Not taking the proper steps in planning for...

Friday, January 20, 2017

It seems like college tuition continues to rise year after year. For those of you that have toddlers currently, who knows what a year’s tuition will be for your children when they reach college. While you can’t control...

Friday, January 13, 2017

Are you looking for someone to manage your money, but not sure where to start? Sure, you would assume that any financial advisor would do, but unfortunately that is not always the case. It’s important to keep a keen eye on the...

Saturday, January 7, 2017

Depending on the state that your farm resides, there may be legislation in place that could help your homestead property financially. For instance, in the state of Minnesota, a special law provides an estate tax exemption for...

Friday, December 23, 2016

When planning for retirement, there are several factors to consider when creating a realistic retirement plan. While it used to be easy to predict how your retirement would work, these days, it’s not so simple. Many of us have...

Thursday, December 22, 2016

There comes a time in everyone’s life where they can no longer function in the same manner than in their earlier years. While this can be extremely sad for a family, it can also be financially devastating as well. Not only does...

Thursday, December 15, 2016

If you are a farm owner who would love to see your farm passed down for generations to come, it is important that you pay attention! Simply coasting through your last decades of life, not updating your farm transition legacy plan may...

Friday, December 9, 2016

For any farm owners, it is imperative that some financial planning takes place. While we understand that growing up on the farm may mean that you don’t have much of an interest in financial planning, it still is very important....

Friday, December 2, 2016

Once a business owner, specifically an owner of a farming business, decides to team up with Dunncreek Advisors and create a legacy transition plan, it’s important that they determine if added legal protections, like an operating...

Thursday, December 1, 2016

Many successful people make the same mistakes with their money. It's hard to make great choices and be truly ready for retirement. Here are nine mistakes to avoid.If you are a farm business owner, an urban professional, or a farmer,...

Friday, November 25, 2016

Retirement income is critical to any business transition or retirement plan. Social Security income benefits account for 52% of all income for Americans older than 65 and most people are not aware of all the benefits to which they are...

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Whether the transition you face is a transition out of the farming business or just the transition from full-time employment into retirement, beware some common blind spots. When faced with an important life transition, most people...

Friday, November 18, 2016

You may have heard about the new rule from the Department of Labor that requires retirement accounts to be managed consistent with a fiduciary standard. Here's what's up. The Department of Labor has issued a rule in April of 2016 that...

Thursday, November 17, 2016

As you approach your transition out of the working world you will face your one-and-only retirement. Here are four things to beware about.As a fiduciary, fee-only financial planner in St. Paul, I have helped dozens of people prepare...

Thursday, November 10, 2016

Are you at the point where you’ve got to decide: do we stay or do we go? Do you struggle with making the decision of selling the family farm versus keeping it? At Dunncreek Advisors in Minnesota, we can explain your options to...

Tuesday, November 8, 2016

Does your family have a family farm that lately has been causing more headaches than happy memories? Let’s face it. Managing a farm on a daily basis is no easy task. While it may have been successfully run in the past by other...

Thursday, November 3, 2016

A critical link in the chain that makes a smooth and productive transition to the next generation is an effective estate plan. Here are a few things to review to be sure you are on track. Will based estate plan, or no plan -- Wills can...

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

For your farm business to successfully transfer to the next generation, you will need enough cash flow to support two family units at least for a time.Commodity harvest is in full swing across the Corn Belt. Prices are low, as usual...

Saturday, October 29, 2016

Have you ever asked yourself life’s most important question, “what is the point to what I am doing?” Or maybe it’s more like, “why am I am doing what I am doing?” For our farm clients at Dunncreek...

Saturday, October 29, 2016

Poet Robert Browning said "less is more." As we work toward our financial goals, we should stay focused on less things.Many humans, like me, have a tendency to make things more complex than necessary. As we work toward financial goals,...

Saturday, October 22, 2016

Lots of folks have life insurance. Often they got it a long time ago. Mostly they think that it's handled and they don't need to think about it. But, often, they are wrong. A quick check is worth the trouble.If you got "hit by a grain...

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Death is not easy. Sure, a passing that is expected is a little bit easier to swallow than one that suddenly occurs, but either way you can be left heartbroken. When financial stress around a legacy plan adds to the stress during this...

Saturday, October 15, 2016

If the land that you own has had a consistent tenant year after year performing operations such as farm work or running a business, chances are that you probably have a close relationship. When reviewing your estate plan, the question...

Friday, October 14, 2016

It might surprise you the mistakes that can derail your retirement plan.Retirement planning can be a tricky area to navigate because it involves hundreds of rules, and violating them can result in unnecessary taxes and penalties. It's...

Saturday, October 8, 2016

With so much going on in our daily lives, it is difficult to keep up with things like your estate plan. However, if you sit down and think about it, staying up to date with your estate plan should actually be a top priority. Rather...

Friday, October 7, 2016

What does it really cost to buy a mutual fund? Almost every retirement portfolio includes some mutual funds. But you may be surprised at the costs you don't even know you are paying to own these products.For many families, investments...

Friday, September 30, 2016

Often people wonder why their personal investment account is not growing as fast as the indexes they hear about in the news.Unless your investment account owns all 500 stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportions as the index, your...

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

As you consider the farm business legacy and transition plan, it can seem rather daunting. There are a lot of details involved. Sometimes it helps to step back and understand the big picture.Regardless of the particulars of your...

Saturday, September 24, 2016

When is the last time you reviewed your estate plan? If it has been any longer than about 3 years ago, it is time for you to dust off the cobwebs and evaluate your existing estate plan. Although it is easy to forget about your estate...

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Sometimes as we think of moving out of the workforce into retirement, we think that we won't need much to live on. It's easy to be wrong, especially when it comes to health care costs. Recent studies show that retirees will need $130...

Saturday, September 17, 2016

When you get serious about retirement, one important question is, "How much savings will I need?" Even if you plan to rent out farmland for retirement income, you still need a nest egg. Part of the challenge to answering the "how much...

Thursday, September 15, 2016

When you decide you need advice to meet your financial goals, be sure to keep these keys in mind as you select your advisor. Currently there are very few common standards in the financial service industry, so it's easy for someone to...

Thursday, September 8, 2016

In order to be successful in retirement start early and count it down carefully. 10 Years Out from Retirement When you get within 10 years of your target retirement date, it's close enough to be real. You can actually imagine...

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Whether you are 65 or 35, these keys will help you lay the groundwork for a retirement plan that wins for you. Things just aren't like they used to be. No more of simply graduating high school and off to the factory. Then 40 years...

Friday, September 2, 2016

When is the last time that you reviewed your estate plan? Here at Dunncreek Advisors, we believe it is important to take a look at your plan at least every 3 years, or any time an important life event has occurred in regards to any...

Thursday, September 1, 2016

When you have a family business, there are plenty of decisions to make. In all honesty, your employees rely on you for their well-being. Their wellness is in your hands. So as you make your day-to-day decisions within your business,...

Friday, August 26, 2016

Farm business transition requires careful consideration. These questions help. This is part two of our list of questions that can help you decide if the time is right for a farm business transition. Are the parents willing to provide...

Thursday, August 25, 2016

When you ask good questions, sometimes you understand the issues better. Am I ready for a farm business transition? When is the best time to start? How do I know when I'm ready to start?When you ask good questions, sometimes you...

Saturday, August 20, 2016

The passing of a close family member is never easy. While our focus should be on the enjoyable memories that we had with our loved one, our mind often gets overwhelmed as one deals with a loved one’s estate. The best way to...

Friday, August 19, 2016

Legacy planning is a part of the financial preparation process that seldom gets enough attention. Individuals are taught from an early age the importance of a legacy plan. When you ask your friends or coworkers about if they have a...

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Recently my dad and I were discussing the amazing advances in crop production he’s seen over his lifetime. It’s something many of us take for granted. People outside agriculture don’t even see it. But it’s truly...

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

With any small business, one significant measure of long-term success is exiting the business on your own terms. Many people are surprised when they learn that exiting a business was unsuccessful. Others are surprised when they learn...

Monday, June 20, 2016

Whether it’s the 4th of July or President’s Day, Martin Luther King Jr. Day or Memorial Day, there is a lot of discussion about legacy and what each of those days and people mean to our country. We think there should also...

Thursday, September 10, 2015

As we talk about transitioning the business to new management, we must create income for the outgoing owners. The retirement income plan needs to provide adequate income for rising needs over time.

Thursday, September 3, 2015

Life is funny.Today, by chance, I was reminded of a speech I heard in November 1978 in Kansas City, Missouri, at the National FFA convention when I was a Junior in high school and an FFA officer.

Thursday, August 27, 2015

As we talk about transitioning the business to new management, we must create income for the outgoing owners.